WILDS' webs







Main Courses


Food Safety

Wilderness Cooking


info at wilds.mb.ca

Copyright © 2006
WILDS of Manitoba



2024 04 12

Created 2006 05 18




Stained Glass Window Image




Stained Glass Window Image




Stained Glass Window Image




Stained Glass Window Image




Stained Glass Window Image




Stained Glass Window Image




Stained Glass Window Image




Stained Glass Window Image




Stained Glass Window Image




Stained Glass Window Image




Stained Glass Window Image




Stained Glass Window Image




Stained Glass Window Image




Stained Glass Window Image




Stained Glass Window Image




Stained Glass Window Image




Sharing good taste, nutrition and energy for a longer pleasant life.

New: Read the Food Safety section, below.

Cooking pancakes on rock in LaVerendrye Provincial Park, PQ
Pancakes cooking on a flat rock over a camp fire on an island
in La Verendrye Provincial Park, Quebec. BEST pancakes ever!!!
OYCCC (now RACCC) trip leader Gerry Chatigny packed ONE POT!
Note the pancake batter that is mixed in a large tin can.
Friend Shirley Thompson was on this trip as well as a young man (name?) who
who was legally blind memorized the campsites with daytime tunnel vision
then safely navigated the rocky sites with no vision, without assistance.
He was an inspiration to me to ditch blinding headlamps and navigate camp
in the dark and to include persons of all abilities in my paddling endeavours.
Copyright © 1986 Donna R Kurt





Banana QBACC Bread

Banana Quinoa Buckwheat Almond Chocolate Coconut Bread

This recipe can be adjusted with different flours, sometimes I vary the flour mixture with a small amount of coconut flour and/or wild rice flour and/or millet flour. The sugar and oil could be reduced. Try using maple syrup or honey instead of the cane sugar.

I use organic ingredients whenever available/possible.

Sometimes I fold in chocolate chips, hemp seeds, pumpkin seeds or blueberries along with the cooked quinoa. I also vary the spices, adding a little ground cloves, nutmeg or cardamom.

This recipe is gluten free and lactose free. It is also FODMAP compatible for IBS diets. Personally, I exclude the egg yolks as I am sensitive to them.

Cook quinoa ahead of time to obtain 1 cup of cooked quinoa and allow it to cool. Wash the quinoa first to remove saponin on the outside of the grain which can make it taste soapy or bitter.

Preheat oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit, 180 degrees Celsius.

Prepare a loaf pan or a 8-mini loaf pan by lightly coating with oil and lining with parchment paper.

Mix well in a medium mixing bowl:

  • 2 eggs
  • 1 cup ripe bananas, mashed
  • 1/3 cup coconut oil (melted, cooled) and/or sweet almond oil
  • 1/3 vanilla bean (scraped seeds from inside the peel) or 2 tsp vanilla
Stir together in a large mixing bowl:

  • 1 cup quinoa flour and/or almond flour and/or buckwheat flour
  • 1/2 cup quinoa flakes or oat flakes or oat bran
  • 1/3 cup butter (or peanut or almond butter)
  • 3 tbsp chocolate baking powder (or chocolate baking chips)
  • 1 tsp baking soda
  • 1/2 tsp baking powder
  • 1 tsp ground cinnamon
  • 1/3 cup coconut flakes (optional)
  • 1/4 cup milled flax seed
  • 1/4 cup milled chia seed
Add wet ingredients to the dry ingredients in the large bowl and mix together but don't overstir.

Gently fold the 1 cup of cooled cooked quinoa into the mixture, don't overstir.

Baking steps:

  • Spoon the mixture into a prepared loaf pan or mini-loaf pan.
  • Place into oven preheated to 350 F.
  • Bake about 60 minutes for loaf pan, 35 minutes for mini-loaf pan.
  • Test by inserting a toothpick, if it comes out dry the loaf is cooked. I prefer to use a mini-loaf pan as the centre tends to cook better and they are ready to freeze individually and package for snacks.
  • Wrap them in saran wrap or put in individual ziplock freezer bags to take with you for a quick revitalizing snack through the day.







Multigrain Blueberry Banana Muffins

Wet Ingredients

  • 1/3 cup grape seed oil (and/or melted butter)
  • 1/2 cup liquid honey
  • 1/4 cup milk
  • 1 cup mashed bananas (3 medium)
  • 2 eggs beaten

  • Beat oil and honey together in large mixing bowl.

  • Add eggs and milk, mix well.

  • Mix in bananas.
Dry Ingredients

  • 1 3/4 cup multigrain or wholewheat flour
  • 1/4 cup milled flax seed (and/or wheat germ)
  • 1/2 tsp salt
  • 1 tsp baking soda

  • Sift/mix dry ingredients together and add to wet ingredients.

  • Mix by hand until smooth. Batter should not be too thin - add flour, oat flakes or milk powder to thicken, if necessary.
Optional Ingredients

  • 1/4 cup chopped nuts
  • 1/4 cup raisins
  • 1 cup berries (part-thawed frozen blueberries)

  • Stir in nuts, raisins, blueberries.
Baking Steps

  • Pour into greased (buttered) muffin tins.
  • Dash tops with cinnamon.
  • Top with whole walnuts, pecans, almonds and/or chocolate wafers.
  • Bake for 25 to 30 minutes in oven preheated to 325F.
  • Chocolate wafers may be added to the tops of the muffins as soon as muffins come out of oven (optional).
  • Drizzle with melted white chocolate (optional).
  • Cool on wire rack for 1/2 hour before serving.
  • Pour into loaf pan and bake 55 to 60 minutes; when sides begin to shrink from edge of pan, check centre with a toothpick; remove from pan immediately after baking to allow it to cool and for some of the moisture to evaporate. Use a springform pan instead of a loaf pan for best results.







DR's Peanut Butter Cookies

Mix well (whip) until creamy in a large mixing bowl:

  • 250 gm cream cheese
  • 1 cup peanut or almond butter
  • 1/2 cup butter (or peanut or almond butter)
  • 2 tbsp grapeseed or sunflower oil
Beat in:

  • 1 cup brown sugar or honey or maple syrup

  • Mix in:
  • 3 eggs
  • 1 tsp vanilla
Mix in:

  • 2 cups multigrain flour (or whole wheat flour)
  • 1/2 cup dry milk powder (or whey concentrate)
  • 1 cup wild rolled oats, or kamut, spelt or rye flakes
  • 2 tsp baking soda
  • 1/4 cup milled flax seed
  • 1/4 cup wheat germ
Stir in by hand:

  • 1/2 cups crushed nuts/seeds (sunflower, sesame)
  • 1/2 cups raisins/craisins
  • 1/2 cups large chocolate chips (can be left out)
Baking steps:

  • Preheat oven to 350 F.

  • Add just enough flour to make a consistency that does not stick to hands and can be rolled into balls the size of a golf ball. They may be quite oily, depends on how much shortening (oil/butter/peanut butter) you use.

  • Place on cookie sheets and press lightly with large fork.

  • Sprinkle lightly with cinnamon.

  • Bake for 12 minutes (remove and inspect the cookies' bottom edges .... they should be almost turning brown).

  • Place on top of each cookie a chocolate wafer, return to oven for a minute, then remove and push a nut onto the wafer.

  • Place cookie sheets in a safe place to cool.

  • Melt 1/2 cup chocolate in microwave (3 1/2 minutes, medium) and use a butter knife dipped into the chocolate to drizzle chocolate swirls onto cooled cookies. Cool!!! Resist???

  • Makes about 3 dozen.







Multigrain Maple Granola

Mix the following ingredients together in a large mixing bowl:

  • 3 cups oatmeal or quinoa flakes or buckwheat flakes
  • 2 cups rye flakes or quinoa flakes or buckwheat flakes
  • 2 cups rolled barley or quinoa flakes or buckwheat flakes
  • 1 cup wheat germ raw or milled chia seeds and/or milled flax seeds
  • 1 1/2 cups coconut flakes
  • 1/4 cup sesame seeds
  • 1/2 cup sunflower seeds
  • 1/2 cup sliced nuts (pecans, almonds, hazelnuts)
Mix the following ingredients together and pour over the dry ingredients:

  • 1/2 cup maple syrup
  • 1/2 cup water
  • 1/2 cup olive oil
  • 1 tsp vanilla

  • Mix together well and spread on 2 baking sheets.
Baking Steps:

  • Bake 30 minutes in 350F oven turning/stirring once to brown evenly.
  • Cool
  • Add 1/2 cup dried fruit (berries, chopped apricots, apples, bananas).
  • Makes about 3 litres.







Glazed Lemon Pound Cake

Pound Cake Ingredients:

  • 1/2 cup butter
  • 3/4 cup sugar
  • 2 eggs
  • 1 1/2 cups all purpose flour
  • 2 tsp baking powder
  • 1/2 tsp salt
  • 1/2 cup milk
  • grated rind of 2 small lemons

Cream butter and sugar well.
Add eggs one at a time and beat well after each addition.
Sift dry ingredients and add altneratley with milk.
Add grated lemon rind (reserve 2 tsp rind, put into juice).
Put in greased and floured bread pan.
Bake at 350degF for 1 hour (preheat oven) (check at 45 minutes). Prepare the glaze (below) while the cake is baking.

Lemon Glaze Ingredients:

  • 1/4 cup white sugar
  • 2 tsp lemon rind
  • juice of lemons

Mix the glaze ingredients together then heat the mixture in a microwave oven or in a pot on a stove until the sugar is dissolved.
As soon as the cake comes out of the oven, use a fork to poke holes all over the top of the cake while it is still in the pan.
Stir the glaze then pour it over the top of the cake.
Leave to cool in loaf pan.


  • Add Grand Marnier or other liquere to the Glaze mix.
  • Add 1/2 c cranberries or sliced almonds to the cake mix.
  • Replace lemons with limes or try lemon/lime combination.







Clod Hoppers


  • 3 3/4 cups Golden Grahams Cereal
  • 2 cups baking chocolate (white or milk or dark)
  • 2 cups peanuts (salted and roasted)

Measure peanuts and cereal into a bowl.
Cover a cookie baking sheet covered with wax or parchment paper.
Put baking chocolate into a large (6 cup) microwaveable bowl.
Microwave baking chocolate at half power for 4 minutes.
Stir baking chocolate until it is all melted.
Immediately pour in the peanuts and cereal and stir very well.
Pour mixture onto parchment paper and spread to half inch thickness.
Allow to cool. If desired, drizzle with other colour melted chocolate.


  • Substitute peanuts with roasted pecans, mixed nuts, almonds.
  • Substitute some peanuts with raisins or cranberries.
  • Try different cereals (Chex, Vector, Spoon Size Shreddies).
  • Sprinkle cinnamon or other spice on mixture before it cools.



Maple Candy Ginger


  • 2 kg ginger root, peeled (scrape with spoon edge) and sliced 1/4" thick
  • 1 cup maple syrup
  • 2 cup water

In large saucepan boil the ginger slices in water (covering the slices) for 10 minutes. Drain/sieve, retain juice for ginger tea.

Put ginger slices back into large saucepan, add 1 c maple syrup and 2 c water, bring to a boil then simmer uncovered, stirring often, until the liquid is reduced so there is about 1/3 cup liquid left in the pot.

Lift out the pieces of ginger and place on a dehydrator drying rack with a drip tray underneath, then dry at about 110 F for 4 to 6 hours or until the pieces are not tacky or wet. Alternatively, place on a mesh screen over a drip tray and dry in an oven at the lowest setting, testing regularly for the pieces to not be tacky or wet.

Place the dried pieces in a sterilized jar with a dessicant pack to reduce the possibility of mold.

Reserve the syrup left in the pot in a small jar in your fridge to use on your pancakes or in beverages or as a drink mix.








Alpine Wild Rice Spaghetti

Adapted from Foods for the Trail by Sierra Club

Ingredient Preparation and Packaging:

  • Quantity serves 5 persons
  • Takes about 15 minutes at home, plus shopping time.
  • 500 grams wild rice spaghetti (90 grams + 10 if active, per person). Place spaghetti in waterproof plastic bag so ends won't puncture plastic to keep it from getting wet in storage/transport.
  • 3 tablespoons olive oil in sealed container that won't leak.
  • herb mixture, mixed together and placed in waterproof container or bag.
    • 2-3 tbsp sweet basil herb dried
    • 2-3 tbsp parsley herb dried
    • 1 tsp Italian herb mix dried
    • 2 tbsp roasted pine nuts crushed
    • dash of salt and pepper
    • pinch of dried garlic or garlic substitute per taste (packed separately if sensitivity to garlic)
  • 5 tablespoons roasted pine nuts in a separate bag or container.
  • 250 grams fresh parmesan or pecorino cheese or 250 grams dried parmesan.
  • Place herb mixture, oil, spaghetti, pine nuts, cheese into a labelled waterproof bag with this recipe.

Preparation Instructions
Takes about 15 minutes at camp.
Boil spaghetti per package instructions.
Grate the parmesan or pecorino if it is fresh (ensure a grater is packed with utensils).
When the spaghetti is al dente, carefully drain it, leaving pasta in the pot.
Stir olive oil into spaghetti so it doesn't stick together.
Stir herb mixture into spaghetti and add garlic or garlic substitute to taste.
Stir in dry or grated fresh cheese.
Serve, with pine nuts on the side.


  • Use wild rice rotini instead of spaghetti.
  • Substitute pine nuts with roasted cashews.
  • Add in cooked fresh or reconstituted dried chanterelle or morel mushrooms.
  • Compliment with almonds, or fresh, canned or smoked fish or meat.
  • Serve with balsamic reduction to drizzle on.





Visit WILDS' Tips Page







Food spoilage or contamination and water contamination can interrupt or break a trip and can be potentially lethal. All fresh foods are biological matter which have spores, bacteria or fungi that can cause the food to spoil; this is enhanced by exposure to high temperature, moisture, oxygen, time and if the foods are low-acid like eggs and meat. Water can transfer contaminants that can infect food or those who use it.

The author declines any responsibility for any outcomes of illness or injury related to the use of this information, it is meant as a reference or guidelines for persons to begin their research into the safe preparation, storage, handling of food and water.

Three modes of contamination:

  • Chemical: stove fuel, mosquito repellant, hand sanitizer, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers
  • Physical: soil, sand, pine needles, insects, finger nails, hair, sneezed/coughed fluids, bandaids, dessicant packets, utensil or plate chips, etc.
  • Biological: fungal, temperature abuse, food spoilage, infected handlers, contaminated surfaces, improper dishwashing or handwashing, contaminated water used for preparation or washing, feces from or grazing by other mammals, birds (voles, squirrels, etc.)
    • Bacterial:
      • Bacillus cereus: temperature abused rice
      • Campylobacter jejuni, C. lari, C. coli, C. fetus: poultry, untreated water, unpasteurized milk, contaminated fresh produce
      • Clostridium botulinum (aka botulism, deadly neurotoxin): root vegetables (potatoes) stored anaerobically, in airtight container or aluminum foil
      • Clostridium perfringens: improper cooling and temperature abused foods, also from anaerobic food storage
      • Escheri coli: improper handwashing or dishwashing, untreated water
      • Listeria: common in soil, stream water, sewage, plants, food - uncooked meats/vegetables, fruits (cantaloupe, apples), milk products
      • Salmonella: meat, poultry
    • Viral: untreated water or food, unsanitary dish or hand washing, contaminated surfaces, physical contact
      • Hepatitis A (HAV): under-cooked or raw shellfish
      • Norovirus: common in nursing homes and daycares, outbreaks usually in winter
      • Staphylococuus aureus: on skin and respiratory tract, can grow anaerobically
    • Parasitic:
      • Trichinella, roundworms: under-cooked pork or wild game
      • Tape worm: under-cooked meat or fish
      • Giardia duodenalis (G. lamblia, G. intestinalis): untreated water, unsanitary dish or hand washing
      • Cryptosporidium: untreated water, unsanitary dish or hand washing


Food Handling Hazard Zone

The hazard zone for food that is being served is having a temperature between 4 C and 60 C for longer than 2 hours.

Any cold food that is not refrigerated below 4 C or cooked food not kept heated above 60 C for more than 2 hours must be safely discarded.

Heated foods kept at a holding temperature above 60 C must first be cooked:

  • Eggs, meats, poultry, etc must first be cooked to 82 C minimum for 15 seconds
  • Pre-cooked, refrigerated or frozen potentially hazardous food to be reheated must first be cooked to 74 C minimum internal temperature for 15 seconds minimum or to 70 C minimum internal temperature for at least 8 minutes
  • Ground red meats, sausages, tenderized beef must reach 71 C internal temperature for 15 seconds minimum
  • Whole cuts of red meat not tenderized must be cooked to 63 C minimum internal temperature for 3 minutes minimum
  • Fish is must be cooked to 70 C minimum internal temperature for 15 seconds minimum unless it is intended to be eaten raw including raw marinated and partially cooked fish
  • Rare beef may be cooked and stored at a minimum internal temperature of 55 C


Mitigating Pathogens

Some, but not all, pathogens may be mitigated for safe consumption of food or water.

  • Listeria can be killed by cooking
  • Botulism cannot be killed by cooking
  • Someone may be allergic or sensitive to foods that others can consume, eg. mushrooms, nuts, cheeses, complex sugars, gluten
  • Do not rely on fresh foods for canoe camping trips beyond the first day
  • Properly wash hands with soap and water, hand sanitizer cannot be relied on alone
  • Store foods in containers that are resistant to rodents, birds and other mammals
  • If someone in a canoe camping party falls ill with a suspect pathogen:
    • Isolate the person(s) as much as possible, minimize exposure:
      • separate latrine, tent, stays in one end of canoe when travelling
      • treat eating utensils separately
    • Care for the person(s) using protective measures:
      • wear surgical gloves, masks
      • ensure they are hydrated, fed
      • arrange for medivac if person is too weak or potentially lethally ill
    • Stop using and dispose of food or water treatment the infected person(s) brought
      • consider other food, water treatment
      • inspect and try to determine the pathogen, source of contamination
  • Properly wash cooking and eating utensils, containers, pots, pans, cups:
    • Wash in hot, soapy water
    • Rinse in hot water
    • Soak for at least 2 minutes in oxygen bleach
    • Air dry, preferably in sun (ultraviolet (UV) light kills many pathogens)
  • Properly treat water from streams intended to be used as drinking water using one or more of these methods:
    • Filter water to less than 2 microns (may not kill viruses)
    • Boil for 1 minute (at elevations above 2000 metres boil for 2 minutes)
    • Treat with ultraviolet (UV) light per manufacturer instructions
    • Chemically treat (this may not kill some pathogens, not safe for extended use)
  • Use dehydrated, freeze-dried, canned or frozen foods
    • Package foods in ziplock bags or vacuum package them
    • Perhaps use a dessicant pack to minimize moisture and spoilage but be careful to remove it when cooking
    • Label packages with the contents, quantities, recipes and date
    • Dehydrated/dried foods:
      • 1/3 to 1/6 less weight than fresh
      • Takes several hours to rehydrate
      • Dry sliced foods in home dehydrator, or in oven on low heat
    • Freeze-dried foods:
      • 1/2 to 1/10 less weight than fresh food
      • Tastier and rehydrates faster than dehydrated/dried food
      • Buy packaged off the shelf, but can be very expensive
      • Has longer shelf life than dehydrated food
      • Use a commercial food freeze-drier, expensive but worth it over the years
    • Canned foods:
      • Bulky, heavy and there is an empty can to carry out
      • Better to dehydrate tomato paste, shrimps
      • Canned fish is an option (some fish don’t dehydrate well)
  • Eggs can be carried in an egg carton or egg holder, inside a plastic bag to minimize a mess if one cracks, alongside other chilled or frozen items and will be food safe for a couple days; if storing longer than a couple days, use powdered eggs or egg crystals, in recipes or scrambling
  • Smoked fish or meats (may still need refrigeration), contain nitrates
  • Freshly caught meat or fish may require special handling/cleaning to avoid contamination.





Download Wilderness Food Seminar
(ZIP document)


Download Stove Comparison Chart
(PDF document)


Ottawa's Canoe Camping Club (RACCC) Recipes